Studies in 1 Thessalonians

Chapter 2 – The word controlling the servants

SUBJECT MATTER

VV. 1- 2 The Circumstances of Their ServiceTheir Entrance

The Intimacy of the Saints ………………………….… ‘know’ … ‘ye know'
The Intensity of the Suffering …………………….… ‘shamefully entreated'
The Intrepid mind of the Servants ……………..… ‘waxed bold in our God’

VV. 3 - 12 The Character of Their ServiceTheir Exhortation

Not out of error ………………………………….… The Source was Right,v. 3
Nor yet from impurity …………………………..… The Motive was Right,v. 3
Nor again in guile ……………………………….… The Method was Right, v. 3
Not pleasing men ……………………………….… The Aim was Right, v. 4
Neither using flattery …………………………..… The Speech was Right, v. 5
Nor covetousness ………………………………… The Reason was Right, v. 5
Nor seeking glory (money) ……………………… The Course was Right,v. 6

The Servant’s Tenderness v. 7 ‘nursing mother care'
The Servant’s Treasurev. 8 ‘imparting gospel and soul'
The Servant’s Toil v. 9 ‘labouring intensely'
The Servant’s Transparencyv. 10 ‘living diligently'
The Servant’s Teachingv. 11 ‘instructing with authority'
The Servant’s Thirstv. 12 ‘desiring conformity to God’

VV. 13 - 16 The Consequence of Their ServiceTheir Effectuality

Receiving the Word in Truth
The Word is Objective, Subjective and Productive, v. 13
Imitating the Churches of God in Testimony
The Testimony is Actual, Geographical and Spiritual, v. 14
Following the Son of God in Trial
The Trial is marked by Severity, Similarity and Sufficiency, vv. 15-16a
Escaping the Wrath of God in Tribulation
The Tribulation is Coming, Convulsive and Consummating, v. 16b

VV. 17 - 20 The Compensation of Their ServiceTheir Expectation

The Resolve of the Present ‘bereaved, as a child of its parents’, v. 17
The Interruption …….'bereaved of you'
The Intent ……………’to see your face'
The Intensity ………..‘with great desire'
The Regret of the Past ‘our way broken up by Satan’, v. 18
How did he know it was Satan’s work?
Why was Timothy permitted to return?
The Reward of the Future ‘our joy and crown of rejoicing’, vv. 19-20
Hope……Not DeferredJoy…………Not Disappointed
Crown…..Not DefeatedGlorying…..Not Dismayed

SELECTED THEME

The Gospel of God ‘spoken’, v. 2 The Work of the Evangelist
'imparted’, v. 8 The Work of the Pastor
'preached’, v. 9 The Work of the Teacher

NOTES

Words unique to the Chapter: ‘suffer previously’, v. 2; ‘flattery’, v. 5; ‘nurse’, v. 7; ‘devoutly, in a holy manner – holily’, v. 10; ‘blamelessly’, v. 10; ‘fellow-countrymen’, v. 14 ‘made an orphan by separation’, bereaved, v. 17

CHAPTER 2. 1 - 3. 13.

The contents of chapters 2 and 3 can be summarized as below:-

  1. Chapter 2. 1-16 – The Influence of Paul’s Presence on the Assembly at Thessalonica.
  2. Chapter 2.17- 3.13 – The Influence of Paul’s Absence on the Assembly at Thessalonica.

Chapter 2. Verses 1 – 2, Their Entrance; verses 3-12, Their Exhortation; verses 13-16, Their Effectuality; verses 17-20, Their Expectations.

A helpful approach to this section which we now enter is to observe that verses 1-12 act as a magnification of 1. 5, while verses 13-16 do the same for 1. 6. One paragraph describes the Approach of the Preachers, the other the Acceptance of the People.

CHAPTER 2. 1-2.

The Circumstances of Their Service… Their Entrance.

Turning from the general knowledge of the outsiders in 1. 9, Paul now identifies the particular ‘knowledge’ of the brethren, whom we shall term, the ‘insiders.’ ‘Know’ translates the word oidate which refers to know by observation as 1. 4-5, and who would be so intimately acquainted with this entrance as they? They knew the consequence, that it was not ‘vain’ which could mean, either: it was not empty of purpose nor barren of results; but it is probable that the apostle is referring mainly to the sound content of the message they proclaimed in Thessalonica. It was not a message of hollow content. Note particularly the use of the simple word ‘not’ in verse 1, followed by the positive note touched by the word ‘were’ in verse 2. Similarly, in verses 3 -12, the ‘not’ of verse 3 (followed by several negatives), and then the ‘were’ in verse 7.

Verse 2. It costs much to serve the Lord faithfully and fervently. But the rewards are real and eternal. Can you imagine Paul and his companions booking into a five star hotel upon arrival in Thessalonica? Would they then settle in to recuperate after such a strenuous time in Philippi which was followed by the arduous trudge to this independent city? Likely, his first outing was to the market to buy some material with which to pursue means to sustain both himself and his fellow labourers, for did he not work ‘night and day’ to provide for their necessity and his? Did he not at some time let some of the brethren see the marks of his ill-treatment while in Philippi? Else how could he select the word ‘know’ in this connection for the second time in two verses? It has to be noted with feeling that the word used here by Paul appears only here in the New Testament – propathontes, meaning ‘having suffered before’. This is followed by hubristhentes, meaning ‘having been shamefully entreated’, cf. Matt. 22. 6; Luke 18. 32; Acts 14. 5. ‘We were bold’, comes from eparresiasametha, from parresiazomai, found nine times in the New Testament and of these, eight refer to Paul. This boldness was not man made as he adds, ‘in our God’, indicating that the boldness of speech was an endowment from God by which God equipped His servants to preach the gospel. ‘Our God’ occurs again in 3. 9 in the present epistle and twice in the second letter, 2 Thess. 1. 11-12. There are two aspects of this boldness to grasp:

(a) having confidence in God who had hitherto done so much for them in former activities;
(b) having confidence and boldness which God gives to His servants in and for service, cf. 2 Cor. 4.7

‘To speak’ is lalesai, ‘so as to speak’, which gives additional meaning to the oral nature of the boldness. Two words are used often in our New Testament for speaking, one is lego which refers to the meaning and substance of what is spoken, while laleo, which is before us in this verse, has reference to the sound and pronunciation of the words used. The expression ‘gospel of God’ indicates clearly that the gospel not only belongs to God but also has its origin in Him. It adds weight to the ‘assurance’ of 1. 5, and to the ‘boldness’ just mentioned. It is not of man’s discovery or invention, so why must the innovations of men be used to proclaim a message that emanates from the heart and mind of God? What we need today is a fresh infusion of God’s power, not the intrusion of man’s projects, when it comes to the preaching of the gospel. ‘With much contention’ is a metaphor from sport and renders en pollo agoni, indicating chiefly, if not solely, outward circumstances, as in Philippians 1. 30, and not inner concern, as in Colossians 2. 1. Therefore, the ‘arena’ in Thessalonica was external. Elsewhere the ‘contest’ was within, Col. 2. 1; cf. 4. 12. Our beloved brethren of a past day spoke to us about ‘wrestling in prayer’, which must surely have been derived from this figure.

In summary, ‘Their Entrance’ was known by its spiritual character … ‘ye know’; its sound content … ‘it was not vain’; its strong confidence … ‘we were bold’; its severe conflict … ‘with much contention’.

CHAPTER 2. 3-12

The Character of Their Service … Our Exhortation.

The construction of these verses is composed of seven negatives, vv. 3-6, and six positives, vv. 7-12.
The word ‘exhortation’ used here in verse 3 in its sense of ‘appeal’ indicates that we are looking at the nature of the message denoting it was ‘persuasion with authority’, so it is less than a bare command and more than a mere request. We note a parallel in ‘God making his appeal through us’, 2 Cor. 5. 20.

Verse 3. ‘For our exhortation’ translates he gar paraklesis hemon, denoting an explanatory confirmation of the closing words of 2. 2. Paraklesis is a compound word, composed of para, ‘alongside’ and of kaleo, ‘to call’. The word presents the persuasive and appealing nature of the message the servants proclaimed, calculated to create confidence, comfort and consolation in those who believed. The word would have been used to encourage soldiers. Perhaps in these days most preachers miss the practical preaching of the apostle who sought to bring every motive to bear upon his audience; plying them with every argument, and working on them by every kind of appeal. This was only in order to win them over to faith in Him who saves by grace alone. Exhortation then, in this context, not only embraces the message preached but also indicates the manner in which it was presented. What follows is a list of negatives which carry clearly defined positives. These we will list accordingly.
1.

  1. ‘Not of deceit’, reads in the RV, ‘not of error’, indicating positively that the source was right. Error, planes, is opposed to truth, alethia, either subjectively, 1 John 4. 11; or objectively, Rom. 1. 25-27, cf. Matt. 27. 64; Eph. 4. 14.
  2. ‘Nor of uncleanness’, by which Paul affirms that the motive was right. In most occurrences in the New Testament, akatharsias is used to describe sensual impurity, Matthew 23. 27 being an exception. While this may be the emphasis here and Paul is disclaiming any link with the ecstatic initiations so prevalent in the religious institutions around him, the word did come to signify impure motives with the lust for gain. Paul is affirming that his exhortation did not emanate from any greed for gain or grasp for power.
  3. ‘Nor in guile’. The word ‘guile’ stems from dolos, which means ‘to catch with bait’, and properly signifies a crafty design for deceiving. Paul is stating categorically that the method was right. The trained eye of the reader will have noticed the perceptible move from ‘out of’, ek, in the first two phrases to ‘in’, en, of the third. The Greek ek denotes origin; but en rather indicates atmosphere. There was nothing manipulative about Paul’s method. It was perfectly straightforward. With so many men in religious positions charged with craft and graft, there is surely a timely need to acquaint ourselves with apostolic measures and methods.

Verses 4-5. The word ‘allowed’, dedokimasmetha, the perfect, passive form of dokimazo, ‘to try’, ‘to test’, ‘to test in order to approve’, is, by the way, never used of Satan. The thoughtful reader will consider a reason. The Thessalonians having come through God’s testing emerged approved and entrusted with the holy task of divine service in the work of the gospel. Without being unduly technical, the student must note the case used in the phrase, ‘of God.’ It really reads ‘by God’ as per the text, hupo tou Theou. The significance of holding to one’s calling in divine service to the elimination of every other service is enforced by the ablative case, for it is the case of separation. God who calls and approves determines, surely, that His servant desists from every other task other than that to which he has been divinely appointed. The words ‘put in trust with’ derive from the word pistis, ‘faith’, when understood in the context means, ‘to entrust rather than to trust’, hence the RV ‘entrusted’. Therefore, says Paul, we continue to ‘speak’, or we are ‘constantly speaking’.

Verses 4. ‘Not as pleasing men’, by which phrase Paul implies clearly that the aim was right. Here the case of interest is employed indicating that the role of the servant of God is not to seek the sheer personal favour of any man. See Galatians 1. 10, for the same sentiment, which is so characteristic of Paul. The sole object of the serving saint is surely to please God. This is his utmost concern, both night and day, at home or away. Why? Simply because he is constantly under divine vigilance, for, says Paul, right now I am conscious of this as I write to you miles away in Corinth, I am at this point under divine scrutiny. For now, He is trying my heart and the hearts of those who labour with me. Does it matter how far we are from those who know us and expect so much of us, and when we are out of sight and out of physical reach? Can we do what we like in terms of service for God? In the final analysis He is the only One whose approval matters.

Verses 5. ‘For neither at any time used we flattering words, as ye know’, shows convincingly that the speech was right. The very words employed by these devoted servants were suitable, sincere and without sycophancy. What an insight to heart examination! Paul details not only the course of the work, but now he is affirming the character of the words employed in the work of the gospel and its ministry. For the third time in the chapter he draws upon the intimate knowledge of the Thessalonians expressed in the now familiar, ‘as ye know’. In the second half of the verse, as we shall see, he has the awareness that God is witness.
‘Nor a cloke of covetousness’, by which expression Paul emphasizes decisively that the reason was right. Even in Paul’s day teachers wore cloaks according to status and scholastic attainments, knowing they would receive not only accorded recognition but also appropriate remuneration. Paul adopted no such garb, as indeed many do today. The word used for cloke is ‘pretext,’ prophasis, and it occurs seven times in the New Testament, see Acts 27. 30, where the word is translated ‘colour.’ Is it not so, that the colour of the ecclesiastical garb today denotes the status and determines the stipend of the wearer? The student will perhaps read expository material where the interpretation of this phrase is given to be simply figurative. Remember that most expositors today are of denominational persuasion and are clothed with such distinguishing apparel as Paul disowned. Paul at the time of writing is far away from the saints whom he is addressing. How would it go if, in a different clime, he donned the robe he refused in Thessalonica and then sought to help the Corinthians to see the wrong of such practices? He could never adopt something in Corinth he abandoned in Thessalonica and then say, God is witness. Note, he did not say God ‘was’ witness. True He was, but the point is, He still is witness. So Paul maintains his stand not because of changing situations, but because the eye of an unchanging God is upon him wherever he may be. Why are we not consistent in such things, beloved? Or are we? Readers will therefore see the cloke is to be taken as something not as a means to conceal, but to reveal. The genitive of object, in which the word ‘covetousness’ is given, strongly supports this interpretation. We learn from this remark by Paul about God that when it comes to actions he appeals to the saints, but where motives are concerned, he appeals alone to God, and so ought we.

Verse 6. ‘Nor of men sought we glory, nor of you, nor yet of others’, provides the seventh negative and proves to all that the course was right. What is the glory of which the apostle speaks? With the previous phrase in mind the answer simply is, stipend, see Gen. 31. 1; 2 Kgs. 12. 15-16. Certainly, while in Thessalonica, he received help from the church in Philippi, but it was not his practice to set up a claim for such. Neither is it conceivable he would sign up with a system that would guarantee support and thus bring himself into bondage. True, he had the privilege to exercise his ‘right’ but, under the prevailing circumstances he recognized in the area of his labour, he chose not to burden the saints in Thessalonica, and so wrought with his hands night and day to supplement the help received from others. These verses offer tremendous guidance for the servant going forth in the service of the Lord today.

Verses 7-12. These present six positives that offer to our minds needed material to ponder as to our disposition and deportment among saints of all classes, callings and countries. I will append a title to each verse.

Verse 7. Their Love … Their Tenderness … ‘We were gentle’ uses the form of the verb which denotes ‘we became’. Obviously a work of God within them, bringing the preachers to be what only He could make them to be as suited to the work of His appointment and approval. Only twice in the New Testament is the word ‘gentle,’ eepios, found, here and in 2 Timothy 2. 24. There was nothing ex cathedra about the apostles, nothing sinister nor unkind. They poured the very vital of their life in devoted service into the hearts and lives of the saints, just as would a nursing mother who suckles her own children. What a vivid picture of affection and tenderness is here portrayed in Paul’s disposition. ‘Cherisheth’, is thalpo, ‘to keep warm’, see Eph. 5. 29; Deut. 22. 6. LXX, revealing the heart of that tender love which the saints experienced from their mentor. ‘Children’ is a familiar word and occurs in the text as tekna, meaning ‘little-born ones,’ which we are, according to John 1. 12.

Verse 8. The Liberality … Their Treasure … I ask myself, in forty-four years of full time service for God, most of which has been spent in a foreign land, what have I willingly imparted to the saints among whom I have laboured? How demonstrative is the love of these men toward God’s own. The word used here means to have strong desire toward, or yearning after. We are somewhat confined with some of these mighty words due to their singular appearance in the New Testament as is this one. However, it was used of parents who having been bereft of a son, maintained what would be naturally, a ‘great longing’ for him. The present tense of the verb shows the perpetual action of the yearning that continued toward all the saints at Thessalonica. Their on-going willingness displayed itself in an act of impartation. If it were a coat, I could understand, see Luke 3. 11, or content, Rom.1. 11, or comfort, Eph. 4. 28, but to impart one’s soul, how could that be done? Is it quite determinable what is involved in imparting the gospel of God? What else would a soul need having believed the gospel? It requires the impartation of my soul for their spiritual increase! Let us ask ourselves what is involved in this act of impartation and have I a soul worth imparting? Clearly, it is soul-history with God, as we shall see.

The demonstrative force of the connecting link ‘so’ between verses 7 and 8 emphasizes the strength of the love existing in the hearts of the servants for the saints. It casts our minds back to Exodus 3 when the mother of Moses who bore him became the nurse who looked after him and promoted his growth. The love that motivated these exemplary ‘missionaries’ is sadly lacking today in many fields of service. Sure, many are willingly interested to declare the gospel, but how many are willing to impart their souls? For the apostle, this meant more than the giving of his life, because he was not called upon to do that, else there would be no letter to the Thessalonians. Pause and consider the word ‘willing’, or ‘delighted,’ which is eudokoumen, from eudokeo, ‘to be well pleased’. The tense tells us plainly that it was something they kept doing, it had a continuous expression of action. Some servants of God are encased in the bare and abstract authority of office. Their work is carried out with detached professionalism. Take, for example, an elder who never opens the door of his home to help the saints, or ever uses his table to be a means of doing more than merely sustaining the outer man. What would he really know of imparting his soul? Usually he can give orders and direct operations, but in the most intimate of conversations a barrier is raised and we cannot pass. He will not expose his soul, and so the hidden depths of his spiritual personality are unplumbed. The Thessalonians did not find Paul and his companions men of this ilk or stamp. It is certainly affirmed by many workers, yes, we are one ‘with’ the saints, which is good, but are they one ‘of’ them? Paul lost no sense of authority or liberty in becoming endearingly identified with the saints so as to be able to impart the inner experiences of spiritual development in soul history with God. He writes to Timothy and reveals this very point we are stressing. How did Timothy ‘fully know’ and thus ‘follow’ Paul’s teaching, train of thought, trust, temper, tenderness, traits, trials, tests, tours and triumph, had he not imparted his ‘soul’ to him? It becomes us, brethren, to work at this, for there are times when a disclosure of soul history with God will make a situation undergo a significant change, e.g., David, faced with Saul’s armour, can relate soul history with God when he was preserved by divine power from the lion and the bear. Paul himself virtually says, you all know about me being ‘let down’ in a basket, but no one knows till now, that such an one was ‘caught up’.

Verse 9. Their Labour … Their Determination … Obviously the Thessalonians would have seen the apostle going down to the market to purchase the black Cilician fabric of goats’ hair from which he made tents. So he can invoke their vivid recollections of his continual toil in order to have something to meet the needs of both himself and his companions in labour. Even with this, there was not enough for did he not thank the Philippians for their giving when, as he writes, Phil. 4. 16, they sent ‘unto my need’? Visualize the drudgery, the irksome task, all that is uncongenial, which the words ‘labour’ and ‘travail’ suggest. Here is a strenuous earthly means to a heavenly end. Could it be that even as the devoted apostle laboured in the room of his toil, he taught those who were able to take advantage of the time to be with him? And no collection was taken up after the effort! We have already noticed the three times the expression ‘gospel of God’ occurs in the chapter, and have observed the distinctive word used on each occasion. Here the word ‘preached’ signifies the ‘proclamation of a herald’. Nothing more royal filled the soul and service of the apostle than to preach the authoritative message of the Sovereign.

Verse 10. Their Living … Their Diligence … Paul first cites the knowledge of the Thessalonians, vv. 1, 2, 5. Then he comments on their remembrance, v. 9, but in this verse he calls upon their witness. The believers witnessed the outward conduct of the apostle and could therefore testify to the character of the person they so closely inspected. Our lives as servants are open to inspection also. It therefore behoves us to walk carefully and witness clearly so that God may be glorified and the saints edified. There were points, however, lying beyond their cognisance. For these he has to appeal to God who knows the hearts of all. Both to the saints and to God he submits himself unconditionally for judgement, knowing assuredly that, the verdict would be commendable due to the unimpeachable conduct these devoted and diligent servants displayed. The words that Paul uses here are interesting adverbs that relate to the ordering of their lives as lived before men and God. It is important to note that they are not adjectives. The apostle is not bringing out the elements of his own personal character, but is unfolding his deportment before, and dealing towards, the saints of God in Thessaonica. All he knew of the work of justification that placed him before God in this category, he displayed in practical life daily. Hence ‘holily’ and ‘righteously’ are expressive of his conscientiousness and integrity before the people of God. Should anyone have had any misgivings, no charge was sustainable, far less a cause for censure found, which the word ‘unblameably’ conveys. The closing expression of this verse can be rendered literally, ‘to you who are believing, we became’. Nothing denotes more clearly the results from total conformity to the standing we have before God than the display of a life that is the powerful outworking of grace alone.

Verse 11. Their Language … Their Discipline … The observant reader will have already noted how many times the apostle mentions the word ‘know’. We have urged all who read these lines to make note of such repetitions. Here, again, the word expresses a knowledge that is absolute, in that the saints knew intimately the truth of what the writer was saying, for they were the grateful recipients of his ministry. ‘Every one of you’ is literally ‘each one of you separately’ and clearly indicates that there was more to the ministry of Paul than public preaching. There was evidently, a determination in Paul’s heart to give individual attention to each believer. That would be a big order for the preachers of our day who, content with swelling audiences, have little or no time for the individual. The great, and late, Mr. William Trew told us years ago that the platform was like fishing in a pond, when you got a ‘bite’ meaning, of course, an interested person, you worked from there. May I say, I proved that in the man as I knew him. In the text, originally, the next words are ‘as a father his children’, which because of their position textually, contribute emphasis to the subject. Note the change from a ‘nursing mother’ of verse 7 to the figure of a ‘teaching father’. The change is appropriate, for it enhances the character of the work of God as the servant alters in his responsibility from one form to another, and performs a corresponding ministry. In verse 7 it is the tenderness of the nursing mother; here it is the teaching of the nurturing father. Both necessary in any household whether literal or spiritual. We recall surely, the words of Proverbs 4. 11, ‘Hear, ye children, the instruction of a father, and attend to know understanding’. Many are more interested in the colour of the teacher’s tie these days, rather than in the character and content of his teaching. In verse 1 Paul uses the word ‘brethren’, which denotes association. Then in verse 7 he refers to the ‘nursing mother,’ signifying affection, but here in verse 11 the mention of the ‘father’ affirms authority. Three participles now follow, and all are in the plural, for Paul is not isolating himself from his fellow labourers, neither Silas nor Timothy. ‘Exhorting’ expresses a ministry that directs the saints to a certain course of action, which conveys a persuasion with authority. ‘Comforting’ adds the thought of stimulus or encouragement to maintain the course, which indicates a pleading with affection. ‘Charging’ translated, ‘testifying’ in Galatians 5. 3, see Acts 20. 26 ; 26. 22; Eph. 4. 17, suggests there is danger ahead which should make them vigilant. It also confirms that it came as a pronouncement with anticipation. One of the most important issues that emerges from this great verse is that Paul treated the saints individually as well as collectively, and according to their particular needs.

Verse 12. Their Longing … Their Desire … Paul has a goal and in this verse it is clearly defined. ‘That ye would walk’ is eis to peripatein humas. The opening part of this phrase employs the preposition ‘into’ which when used in this form denotes ‘to the end that’, or ‘for the purpose of’, which when linked with the previous verse, offers a splendid reason for its use. Here is the end in view that the walk of the Thessalonians may be worthy of God. ‘Walk’ is a familiar word in the Pauline corpus, meaning simply ‘to regulate one’s life’ or to ‘conduct one’s self’. The present tense of the verb indicates perpetual action, which offers us a constant occupation. The next expression presents the standard we are obliged to attain, ‘worthy of God’. This means our state must be congruous with our standing. In other usages of this word ‘worthy’, it is translated ‘as becometh’, Rom. 16. 2. Place together the following passages and form a clear understanding of the standard the Scriptures set, Eph. 4. 1; Phil. 1. 27: Col. 1. 10. There can scarcely be a more powerful incentive for a holy life than being conscious of the ongoing call of God to His own kingdom and glory. Note the word ‘call’, kalountos, is a present active participle, showing. He is always calling us efficaciously by His grace ‘unto his own kingdom and glory’. The mention of the kingdom here denotes reward, while the glory, signifies reflection. The measure of my devotedness will determine the manner of my reward and my capacity to reflect His glory forever.

Let us collect the main message of the verses we have rather briefly considered from verses 7-12. Reviewing the selfless activity of Paul and his fellow-workers, we have seen: verse 7, their Tenderness; verse 8, their Treasure; verse 9, their Toil; verse 10, their Transparency; verse 11, their Teaching; and verse 12, their Thirst.
After reading these verses and having ministered them to you who will read this article, the writer’s concern for himself would be, how would I conform to this outline of a servant as presented by the Spirit of God? I am forced to ask myself as I look at each verse, what about my Disposition; Dedication; Determination; Diligence; Discipline; and Desire in respect of the multitude of saints that hear me minister and see me moving?’ Hopefully, you will review your life in light of these demanding traits and may we together press on for the crown. This great servant of God wrote just before he laid down his pen for ever, ‘yet is he not crowned, except he strive lawfully’, 2 Tim. 2. 5.

CHAPTER 2. 13-16.

The Consequence of Their Service … Their Effectuality.

Chapter 2, verses 1-12 is a development of 1. 5, while 2. 13-16 is a development of 1. 6. In one it is the ‘assurance of the preachers’ that is emphasized, in the other it is the ‘acceptance of the people’. Note in each, key words are mutually employed.
The Reception of the Message, 2. 13-16.
The Acceptance and Agency of the Revelation, v.13.
Receiving the Word of God in Truth.
The Reason and Reality

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