Titus 2. 4 to 2. 15

Chapter 2, Versus 4, 5 that they may train the young women ¡ª this rendering is preferable to the A.V., “ teach.” The verb sophronizo literally denotes to cause to be of Sound mind ; the training here enjoined would involve the cultivation of sound judgment and pru-dence and the right discharge of the responsibilities attaching to their daily life.

to love their husbands, to love their children, ¡ª the condi-tion of things in Crete must have tended to counteract this. There was great need, as there is today, so to live as to make home and family life beautiful, as only those can who are true followers of Christ. The two words which these phrases translate are adjectives found here only in the N.T. They might be rendered “ lovers of their husbands, lovers of their children.

Verse 5. to be soberminded, ¡ª the same word as in verse 2.

chaste, ¡ª the word hagnos signifies (1} pure from every fault, as in 1 Tim. 5. 22, (2) pure from carnality, modest, here and 2 Cor. 11.2. It has reference to thought, act, and demeanour, whether in look, speech or dress. The synonymous word jtagios denotes holy, as being free from admixture of evil, whilst hosios denotes holy, as being free from defilement.

workers at home, ¡ª Ibis R.V. rendering represents the word oikmu’os, found in the most authentic manuscripts. It signi-fies the fulfilment of home duties and the avoidance of going round indulging in the gossiping habit.

kind, ¡ª agathos describes that which, being good in its character, is beneficial in its effect; hence the R.V. rendering here. A worker at home may be of such a harsh character as to be unkind. The two good qualities are to be blended.

being in subjection to their own husbands, – there is no stress upon the word “ own.” For what is involved in this injunction see Eph. 5. 22-24, and with regard to cases where a wife has been converted while the husband remains unconverted, see 1 Pet. 3. 1-6.

that the word of God be not blasphemed : ¡ª this refers not merely to the preceding clause but to all that has just preceded.

The word of God is here that which was ministered orally. Today it applies also to the Scriptures. Every departure from that which is right and proper in family life is sure to be marked by unbelievers and to become thereby a cause for scoffing at the Christian faith.

Chapter 2, Verses 6-8

Verse (i. the younger men likewise exhort to be sober-minded : ¡ª the verb sdphvoneo, to be soberminded, is rendered “ to think soberly “ in Rom. 12. 3 ; “ are of sober mind “ in 2 Cor. 5. 13 ; in 1 Pet. 4. 7, R.V., it is translated “ be ye of sound mind," and this broader meaning is the significance in the present passage. The word expresses the exercise of self-control. Self-restraint is the special need of youth. To gain and retain the mastery over the tendency to indulge in what is prejudicial to moral and spiritual welfare, requires that self-control which is consistent with walking in the fear of God.

Versa 7. in all things shewing thyself an ensample of good works ; ¡ö¡ª¡ö this exhortation bears upon his general life and conduct : Titus was himself to be what he wished others to be. It indicates the need of doing what is pleasing to God in the varying circumstances of life

In thy doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, ¡ª “ un-corruptness “ indicates the absence of self-seeking and all perverse motives such as deceitfulness and guile ; see 2 Cor. 4. 2. The exhortation to “ gravity “ enjoins a realization of the dignity and solemnity attaching to the handling of the Word of God. The word is used elsewhere in the N.T. in 1 Tim. 2. 2 and 3, 4. The text which the A.V. follows adds “ sincerity," but this is absent from the most authentic MSS.

Verse H. sound speech, that cannot be condemned ; ¡ª

sound speech involves the avoidance of fanciful interpretations and of everything that would bring the teaching into justifiable criti-cism. The word rendered “ sound “ literally denotes healthful, and in this sense is frequently rendered “ whole.” With this in view the words spoken should be used thoughtfully and earnestly and in accordance with Scripture. The teacher should never expose himself to contempt or to the charge of being presumptuous. that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of us. ¡ª the reference is to opponents of the truth, such, for instance, as the Apostle mentions in 1 Thess. 2. 15, 16 ; 2 Tim. 2. 18. Empowered by the Spirit of God the teacher will be able to stop the mouths of gainsayers. His teaching will be backed up by a manner of life which will give no one a handle for reproaching him and his message.

Chapter 2, Verses 9, 10 Verse 9. Exhort servants to be in subjection to their own masters, ¡ª the reference is to slaves, as in 1 Tim. 6. 1. They formed a large class in those days. It was no easy matter to per-suade Christian slaves, who actually shared spiritual blessings with their masters, to manifest patiently and cheerfully a spirit of subjection to them.

and to be well-pleasing to them in all things ; not gain-saying j ¡ª their service was to be rendered without sulleuness and grumbling, without gainsaying or contradictions.

Verse 10. not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity ; ¡ª

the employments of slaves were very varied. They were not only engaged in household duties and on the farm, but some were en-trusted with businesses and other occupations. All this gave opportunities for theft and unfaithfulness. On the other hand, a Christian slave could so live as to give a good testimony by his fidelity in helping the cause of his master instead of frustrating it, as was commonly done.

that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things, – a religion which could produce such a change in the character and life of slaves as to carry out the teaching here given, would influence powerfully the minds of unbelievers and even those who were hostile to Christianity. The comment of Chry-sostom on these verses is worth quoting : he says that “ Greeks form their estimate of doctrines, not from the doctrine itself but from actions and life,” God often gets highest honour from the godly life and testimony of those who are despised by men in general as being illiterate and even ignoble. The meek and quiet spirit is in the sight of God of great price, even in cases where a believer is little known or heard of. If slaves in those olden days could bring glory to the name of Christ by the faithful fulfilment of their work, so surely can those whose occupation is in more favoured circumstances.

Chapter 2, Verses 11, 12

Verse 11. For the grace of God hath appeared, ¡ª following upon the exhortations in verse 1 to 10, the Apostle now gives a general statement of the teaching of the gospel in its practical effects in the lives of all believers, and thus provides Titus with further instructions as to his spiritual responsibilities (verses 11 to 15).

bringing salvation to all men, ¡ª the R.V. text of verse 11 gives the right translation instead of the A.V., which gives the rendering “ the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men.” God’s gTace has not appeared to all men, but it is laden with salvation for all, and that is the point of this statement. God’s grace has been manifested not merely in the Incarnation of Christ, as some teach who would limit the appearing to the life of Christ on earth. The grace of God, as taught in the gospel, has been manifested in the life and death and resurrection of Christ, by whose atoning sacrifice salvation has been brought, and there is no limit to the scope of its provision. It is for Jew and Gentile, for every tribe and nation, for “ the vilest offender who truly believes.”

Verse 12. instructing us, ¡ª the word paidcud primarily means to train children, and hence to teach. But it came to have the broader meaning of training, and is used of parental discipline, e.g., in Heb. 12. (5, 7, 10. Accordingly the thought here, as indi-cated in what follows, is that of training us by way of discipline as well as instruction, so as to subdue our carnal inclinations and guide us in our manner of life.

to the intent that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, ¡ª the tense of the verb rendered “ denying “ marks here the decisive character of the denial. It indicates a complete turning away from ungodliness and a determined overcoming of worldly Inst.

The word hosmikos, “ worldly," signifies that which partakes of, or is characteristic of, the world. The word is used elsewhere only in Heb. 9. 1, and there of the natural materials of the tabernacle. Here it has the ethical or moral meaning of desires of the flesh as characterizing the natural man and therefore the world. We are to have done with all that displeases God, with such things as are described as “ all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the vainglory of life “ {1 John 2. 16).

we should live soberly and righteously and godly ¡ª “ soberly “ relates to oneself; “ righteously “ has regard to our neighbour; “godly" describes our attitude toward God. Eor “ soberly “ see note above on “ soberminded “ (verse 6). Right-eously means being right, or having right relations with. The godly person ever seeks to live as in the presence of God.

in this present world ; ¡ª or rather “ age," aion, and this denotes a period of time, marked in the N.T. usage by spiritual or moral characteristics. The word is thus to be distinguished from kosmos (see kosmikos above). The two are used together in Eph. 2. 2, lit., ’ the age of this world ’ ; that is, the period in which man in his state of alienation from God, pursues his own aims and follows his natural counsels.

Chapter 2, VERSES 13 to 15

Verse 13. looking for the blessed hope ¡ª the verb rendered “ looking “ signifies ’ to expect eagerly.’ here with the certainty of the fulfilment of the hope. It should be noted that this expecta-tion is part of the training given us by the grace of God, and is as much a duty as that of the denial of ungodliness and worldly lusts and that of living soberly and righteously and godly. Accordingly it is not a matter of comfort, though that is very real, so much as a responsibility.

and appearing of the glory ¡ª the word epiphaneia (English “ epiphany") is, lit., a shining forth, and is used of three events,

(1) the first Advent of Christ when He became (lesh, 2 Tim. 1. 10;

(2) His coming into the air to the meeting with His saints, at the time of the Rapture, I Tim. 6. 14 ; 2 Tim. 4. 8 ; (3) the shining forth of His glory at the time of the unveiling (apoltalupsis) of His Parousia with His saints, that is. at the time of His Second Advent, Matt. 24. 27 ; 2 Thess. 2. 8. That appearing is the great hope of Christ and His people ; the Rapture itself is part of the hope but is preliminary as such to the consummating act of His Second Advent for the overthrow of the foes of God and the establishing of the Millennial Kingdom.

of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ; ¡ª the R.V. is almost certainly right in Riving the rendering which applies both titles to the Lord Jesus. It is the appearing of His glory for which we are to look. The ground of this combination as applying to Christ Himself is stronger than that of any conclusion drawn from the Apostle’s general usage of the terms. Without going into further considerations the whole phrase makes a very direct state-ment of the Deity of Christ, concerning which the Scriptures give abundant witness. It is true that God the Father is great, but since the Son is co-equal He also is ipso facto great. His Deity will become manifest to all at His Second Advent, which will likewise demonstrate His power as Saviour.

Verse 14. who gave Himself for us, ¡ª the reference is specifically to His death in atoning sacrifice. Cp. 1 Tim. 2. (i and see Gal. 1.4; 2. 20 ; Eph. 5. 25. It was on the Cross that the Lord gave Himself up for us. And now two special purposes are to be given.

that Me might redeem us from all iniquity, ¡ª the verb lutroo signifies to release by paying a ransom price. Here it is used in the Middle Voice (that which lies in the Greek language between the Active and the Passive). Its special significance lies in this, that it indicates that the person who carries out the action has a special interest in what he does. This is certainly the case in the redemption accomplished for us by Christ. For He was not only manifesting the love of God for the world of sinners lost, but He had in view all the members of the Church, which is His Body, “ The fulness of Him who filleth all in all.”

The word anomia rendered “ iniquity “ really means ’ lawless-ness,’ and is so rendered in the R.V. in 2 Thess. 2. 7, and 1 John 3. 4 (twice), where it is so defined. It is the very essence of sin, and its self-assertiveness is in direct contrast to loving obedience to the will of the Lord, which should be the operating and con-trolling principle and power in our lives.

and purify unto Himself a people for Ills own posses-sion, ¡ª this is the ultimate purpose consequent upon the redemp-tive work of His sacrifice. The reference is to the Church, designed to be a source of eternal delight to His heart, as the outcome of the travail of His sold. God had so spoken concerning Israel in Ex. 19. 5. Contingent upon their obedience they were to be “a peculiar treasure “ unto Him. The word “ peculiar’ has come to have a different meaning from its original idea (it is derived from the Latin pcculium, the share of booty allotted to a captain). The R.V. rendering is therefore suitable. Cp. 1 Peter 2. f).

zealous of good works. ¡ª the word rendered zealous is really a noun which in ordinary circumstances denoted an uncompromising partisan. “Zealots" was a term applied to an extreme section of the Pharisees. To this party a disciple named Simon had belonged, Luke 6. 15 ; Acts 1. 13. Thai: which was an overwhelm-ing passion in the Jewish sect, should find a corresponding but higher zeal on our part in the fulfilment of that which is beneficial and helpful to others, as guided by Uie Holy Spirit.

Verse 15. These things speak and exhort and reprove with all authority. ¡ªA stop after the word speak seems necessary. For that alone of the three verbs is connected with these things. The exhorting and reproving are separate injunctions.

The word epilog} differs from the usual word for authority, exousia, and denotes a commandment, as in the R.V. margin and the text of 1. 13. The condition of things among the churches in Crete necessitated the injunction here given in Titus. In certain circumstances in an assembly, reproof may be called for on the part of brethren in oversight. Their speech, however, is to be “ always with grace seasoned with salt.”

Let no man despise thee. ¡ª this does not imply that Titus was of such a character that he would be liable to be despised in his ministry. Rather his life and conduct were to be such that they would add weight to his words.


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